Sunday, January 24, 2010

What can we know about Indian

India is a land of diverse cultures. The variations in physical, climatic conditions and the extent of exposure to other cultures have greatly influenced the traditions and culture of the different regions. There is an underlying basic factor common to the whole of India, with variations in the practices based on their local needs and influences. Further, the greatness of India has been in accepting the best from all the invaders and intermingling the new customs and styles with the existing - this is visible in all aspects - music, dance, painting, sculptures, architecture.

This article, an excerpt from the introduction to the book "The Art and Architecture of India" by Benjamin Rowland puts it all in a nutshell.

The history of India and its art has been so bound up with the geographic nature of this vast continent that something must be said of these physical characteristics. India has a kind of impregnable geographic isolation. It is in the shape of a great sealed funnel extending from the heartland of Asia. This peculiar shape of the peninsula made for an inevitable retention and absorption of all the racial and cultural elements that poured into it. The peninsula is bounded on the west by the Indian ocean; on the east by the Bay of Bengal. Along the northern frontier India is almost sealed off from the Asiatic mainland by the rocky curtain of the Himalayas from Baluchistan to Assam. The only openings in this formidable natural fortification are the various passes of the north-west, such as the famous Khyber and Bolan passes, which wind through the mountains seperating India from the Iranian plateau. Through these gaps came all the migrating tribes and conquerors that made themselves masters of the rich plain of India.

The cultural divisions of India proper have always been determined and dominated by the great river systems, the watersheds of the Indus and Ganges, the Deccan plateau and South India.

Climate, no less than geography has played its part in the development of the peculiarly indigenous traits of Indian history and art. All the races of martial character have grown up in the dry and hilly districts of north-west and centre, whereas the fertile plains of Bengal and South have been inhabited by peaceful and unwarlike cultivators.

The overpowering nature of India has in a way forced upon the inhabitants an inability to act, a situation responsible for the Indian races having become lost in religiosity.

The mystery of Indian myths and Indian art lies partly in the fact that it suggests rather than states. It could truly be said that Indian symbols of art voiced the same truth as Indian philosophy and myth.

In India, all art, like all life, is given over to religion. Indian art is life, as interpreted by religion and philosophy.

Indian art may, in a general way, be described as theological, hieratic, or, perhaps best of all as traditional. The purpose of Indian art, like all traditional art, is primarily to instruct men in the great first causes, which according to the seers, govern the material, spiritual and celestial worlds. Art is dedicated to communicating these great truths to mankind and, by the architectural, sculptural and pictorial reconstruction of the powers that maintain the stars in their courses.

Tuesday, January 12, 2010

Ponggal is 1 Malaysia Festivel

Pongal is a four-days-long harvest festival . For as long as people have been planting and gathering food, there has been some form of harvest festival. Pongal, one of the most important popular Hindu festivals of the year. This four-day festival of thanksgiving to nature takes its name from the Tamil word meaning "to boil" and is held in the month of Thai (January-February) during the season when rice and other cereals, sugar-cane, and turmeric (an essential ingredient in Tamil cooking) are harvested.

Mid-January is an important time in the Tamil calendar. The harvest festival, Pongal, falls typically on the 14th or the 15th of January and is the quintessential 'Tamil Festival'. Pongal is a harvest festival, a traditional occasion for giving thanks to nature, for celebrating the life cycles that give us grain. Tamilians say 'Thai pirandhaal vazhi pirakkum', and believe that knotty family problems will be solved with the advent of the Tamil month Thai that begins on Pongal day. This is traditionally the month of weddings. This is not a surprise in a largely agricultural community - the riches gained from a good harvest form the economic basis for expensive family occasions like weddings. This first day is celebrated as Bhogi festival in honor of Lord Indra, the supreme ruler of clouds that give rains. Homage is paid to Lord Indra fo the abundance of harvest, thereby bringing plenty and prosperity to the land. Another ritual observed on this day is Bhogi Mantalu, when useless household articles are thrown into a fire made of wood and cow-dung cakes. Girls dance around the bonfire, singing songs in praise of the gods, the spring and the harvest. The significance of the bonfire, in which is burnt the agricultural wastes and firewood is to keep warm during the last lap of winter.

Bogi festival or Bhogi is the first day of Pongal and is celebrated in honor of Lord Indra, "the God of Clouds and Rains". Lord Indra is worshiped for the abundance of harvest, thereby bringing plenty and prosperity to the land. Thus, this day is also known as Indran. On Bhogi all people clean out their homes from top to bottom, and collect all unwanted goods. This day is meant for domestic activities and of being together with the family members. All the houses from the richest to the humblest are thoroughly scrubbed and whitewashed. Homes are cleaned and decorated with "Kolam" - floor designs drawn in the white paste of newly harvested rice with outlines of red mud. Often pumpkin flowers are set into cow-dung balls and placed among the patterns. Fresh harvest of rice, turmeric and sugarcane is brought in from the field as preparation for the following day.

A special puja is performed on the first day of Pongal before the cutting of paddy. Farmers worship the sun and the earth by anointing their ploughs and sickles with sandalwood paste. It is with these consecrated tools that the newly-harvested rice is cut. The Bonfire Another ritual observed on this day is Bhogi Mantalu, when useless household articles are thrown into a fire made of wood and cow-dung cakes. Girls dance around the bonfire, singing songs in praise of the gods, the spring and the harvest. The significance of the bonfire, in which is burnt the agricultural wastes and firewood is to keep warm during the last lap of winter.
In Andhra Pradesh this day is celebrated by girls burning their old clothes and wearing the new ones after an oil massage and bath. Then follows Pongal Panai, a ritual in which new earthenware pots are painted and decorated with turmeric, flowers and mango leaves.

On the second day of Pongal, the puja or act of ceremonial worship is performed when rice is boiled in milk outdoors in a earthenware pot and is then symbolically offered to the sun-god along with other oblations. All people wear traditional dress and markings, and their is an interesting ritual where husband and wife dispose off elegant ritual utensils specially used for the puja. In the village, the Pongal ceremony is carried out more simply but with the same devotion. In accordance with the appointed ritual a turmeric plant is tied around the pot in which the rice will be boiled. The offerings include the two sticks of sugar-cane in background and coconut and bananas in the dish. A common feature of the puja, in addition to the offerings, is the kolam, the auspicious design which is traditionally traced in white lime powder before the house in the early morning after bathing. The second day of Pongal is known as 'Surya Pongal' and is dedicated to the Sun God. It is the day on which the celebration actually begins and is also the first day of the Tamil month Thai. On this day the granaries are full, the sun shines brightly, trees are in full bloom, bird-songs resound in the air and hearts overflow with happiness that get translated into colorful and joyous celebrations

Puja Preparation
Women wake early on this day to create elaborate kolamon the grounds in front of their doorway or home. Kolam is created with colored rice flour placed on the ground carefully by using one's hand. The women take several hours to finish the kolum. On this day the new rice is collected and cooked in pots until they over flow. It is this overflowing which means Pongal. This overflowing of rice is a joyous occasion, and the children and adults as well will shout out 'Pongal-o-Pongal!'
Surya Pongal Puja Process, The Sun God is offered boiled milk and jaggery. A plank is placed on the ground, a large image of the Sun God is sketched on it and Kolam designs are drawn around it. In the centre of the plank is drawn a large figure of the Sun God with his effulgent rays. The "Puja" of the Sun God starts after
the auspicious moment of the birth of the new month Thai. Prayers are rendered to the Sun God to seek his benedictions. The Sun God is given pride of place during Pongal. In the villages, people gather in the courtyard and prepare the Pongal in the open. The pot in which the Pongal is cooked is decorated with flowers, sugarcane pieces, turmeric plant etc. The first offering is made to the Sun.

Surya Pongal Delicacies
The rice is cooked and prepared as a dish called Pongal , which is rice with dhal and sugar. This Pongal variety is called venpongal , ven meaning white. Another variety is also prepared with dhal and jaggery (sweet), called chakra pongal , chakrai meaning sweet. To accompany the venpongal, people eat brinjal (eggplant) sambar (stew), vadai, idli and spicy accompaniments. Sweets, puddings, cooked rice or 'Sarkarai Pongal' are prepared on this day. On all the three days of Bhogi, Pongal and Maattu Pongal, women adorn the entrance of their houses with colorful kolams. Large patterns, decorated with colorful flowers and powders are drawn, crowding the entirs street.

On this day, people travel to see other family members and the younger members of the family pay homage to the elders, and the elders thank them by giving token money. Another thing many do is leave food out on banana leaves for birds to take. Many South Indian people take the first bit of rice cooked in any given day and set it outside for the crows to take, so this is not necessarily a habit only for Pongal. Some also go to temple to worship and thank god for all good things that are bestowed.

Big Haiti quake topples buildings,

PORT-AU-PRINCE (Reuters) – A major earthquake hit impoverished Haiti on Tuesday, toppling buildings in the capital Port-au-Prince, burying residents in rubble and causing many deaths and injuries, witnesses in the city said.

The magnitude 7.0 quake, whose epicenter was inland and only 10 miles from Port-au-Prince, sent panic-stricken people screaming into the streets of the city, as a cloud of dust and smoke from falling buildings rose into the sky.As darkness fell amid scenes of chaos and anguished cries from victims, residents desperately tried to dig out survivors or searched for missing relatives in debris-strewn streets.

The presidential palace was among the buildings damaged, Haiti's ambassador to the United States, Raymond Alcide Joseph, told CNN."My country is facing a major catastrophe," he said. Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and has a history of destructive natural disasters. Some 9,000 U.N. police and troops are stationed there to maintain order.

The major quake, followed by several aftershocks, prompted a tsunami watch for parts the Caribbean but this was later canceled."Everything started shaking, people were screaming, houses started collapsing ... it's total chaos," Reuters reporter Joseph Guyler Delva said in Port-au-Prince.

"I saw people under the rubble, and people killed," he added, saying he had witnessed dozens of casualties. U.S. President Barack Obama said his "thoughts and prayers" were with the people of Haiti and pledged to come to their aid. The Obama administration said the State Department, USAID and U.S. military were working to coordinate assistance. The United States "will be providing both civilian and military disaster relief and humanitarian assistance," Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said. A local employee for the charity Food for the Poor reported seeing a five-story building collapse in Port-au-Prince, spokeswoman Kathy Skipper told Reuters.

Another Food for the Poor employee said there were more houses destroyed than standing in Delmas Road, a major thoroughfare in the city. "Within a minute of the quake ... soil, dust and smoke rose up over the city, a blanket that completely covered the city and obscured it for about 12 minutes until the atmospheric conditions dissipated the dust," Mike Godfrey, who works for USAID, told CNN from the city. Experts said the quake's epicenter was very shallow at a depth of only 6.2 miles, which was likely to have magnified the destruction.

Sunday, January 10, 2010

How to become a good public speaker

Speaking collectively to audience large or small is public speaking. The first requisite for a good speaker is a good voice - neither too loud nor too low or inaudible, not harsh but sweet, and far-reaching. A good voice is sometimes God's gift. In some voices you will notice a quality which arrests and attracts you. But cultivated to the required quality.

The next requirements for a good speaker are a good expressive face, no ugly expression on the face, no awkward gesture, no thumping of tables but a standing posture of dignity and grace. The physical appearance and gestures of the public speaker are very important because the members of the audience have too see as well as hear the speaker. It is the temptation of most speakers to rely on physical gestures to make a point. But on the whole my experience is that by manipulating the voice you do far more to make point than by any physical gesture.

The length of a speech is a matter of great importance. An hour is long enough for a good public speech. The secret of success is the art of omission. A painter when he paint all the palm leaves. He paints just enough to create the impression of a full grown tree. You must leave your audience with a feeling that you should have spoken effectively before public audience you must always keep your hand on the pulse of the audience. Long before the audience gets tired or restless, you must stop.

A successful public speaker's main object is always to rouse and retain the attention of his audience. It is not easy, but it comes with practice. Humour is a powerful tool. To make the audience laugh is the way to their hearts.

Good anecdotes and stories are great aids to public speaking. Of course you must avoid becoming a bore, by telling stories only. But you can always makes a point by a short story or anecdote. Quotations are very useful in public speaking. But they are most apt when they come to you spontaneously.

When you address public audience you must prepare your speeches in advance. The best preparation is to make a mental note of the points you want to make and plan how you propose to begin and close your speech.

The whole speech must be a logical one closely argued and with the deliberate purpose of making the points you want to stress.

The language of your speech is important. If you speak in English, you must use correct modern English and not use bombastic language. You must be understood by your audience easily and well.

The essential background of all pubic speaking is the audience. A public speaker should therefore make it a point to study his audience carefully. Whenever possible you should address an audience after some others have done. That will give you time to watch the audience and learn how it reacts to the speakers. Then you can adjust your speech to the audience. This may not always be possible. You may be the chairman or you may be selected as the first speaker. The safest rule in such cases is to assume that the audience is a normal and friendly one and start your speech. But you must watch your audience carefully, and id necessary adjust yourself to the audience.

There are different kinds of audience. There is the friendly audience. It is comparatively easy to address. But, if you are a constant speaker before friendly audience, you may tend to repeat yourself and not take sufficient pains to prepare your speeches and try to convince and enthuse the audiences. You must avoid this danger.

The there is the hostile audience. The bulk of the audience may be friendly to you; but few people may try to turn the audience hostile to you. Such elements may make short relevant comments on your remarks. If you have presence of mind you can always turn the table on these people. A sharp repartee especially if it is humorous will make the audience laugh at the interrupter and he will quieten down. But there is another set of deliberate interrupters who ask questions, not with a view to getting them answered but to interrupt the speaker for the purpose of disturbing the meeting. It is best to ignore them and refuse to answer the questions.

If, however, you are making a speech, which the audience does not like really and therefore is hostile, you must be careful. You must then do your best, employ all the weapons in your armory of eloquence and try to convince the audience or make them realize that there is a good deal to be said from your point of view

Monday, January 4, 2010

What killed Ranjan Das and Lessons for Corporate India

What killed Ranjan Das and Lessons for Corporate India

A month ago, many of us heard about the sad demise of Ranjan Das from Bandra, Mumbai. Ranjan, just 42 years of age, was the CEO of SAP-Indian Subcontinent, the youngest CEO of an MNC in India. He was very active in sports, was a fitness freak and a marathon runner. It was common to see him run on Bandra's Carter Road. Just after Diwali, on 21st Oct, he returned home from his gym after a workout, collapsed with a massive heart attack and died. He is survived by his wife and two very young kids.

It was certainly a wake-up call for corporate India. However, it was even more disastrous for runners amongst us. Since Ranjan was an avid marathoner ( in Feb 09, he ran Chennai Marathon at the same time some of us were running Pondicherry Marathon 180 km away ), the question came as to why an exceptionally active, athletic person succumb to heart attack at 42 years of age.

Was it the stress?

A couple of you called me asking about the reasons. While Ranjan had mentioned that he faced a lot of stress, that is a common element in most of our lives. We used to think that by being fit, one can conquer the bad effects of stress. So I doubted if the cause was stress.

The Real Reason

However, everyone missed out a small line in the reports that Ranjan used to make do with 4-5 hours of sleep. This is an earlier interview of Ranjan on NDTV in the program 'Boss' Day Out': Boss' Day Out: Ranjan Das of SAP India.

Here he himself admits that he would love to get more sleep ( and that he was not proud of his ability to manage without sleep, contrary to what others extolled ).

The Evidence

Last week, I was working with a well-known cardiologist on the subject of ‘Heart Disease caused by Lack of Sleep’. While I cannot share the video nor the slides because of confidentiality reasons, I have distilled the key points below in the hope it will save some of our lives.

Some Excerpts:

· Short sleep duration ( <5 or 5-6 hours ) increased risk for high BP by 350% to 500% compared to those who slept longer than 6 hours per night. Paper published in 2009. As you know, high BP kills.

· Young people ( 25-49 years of age ) are twice as likely to get high BP if they sleep less. Paper published in 2006.

· Individuals who slept less than 5 hours a night had a 3-fold increased risk of heart attacks. Paper published in 1999.

· Complete and partial lack of sleep increased the blood concentrations of High sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-cRP), the strongest predictor of heart attacks. Even after getting adequate sleep later, the levels stayed high!!

· Just one night of sleep loss increases very toxic substances in body such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (cRP). They increase risks of many medical conditions, including cancer, arthritis and heart disease. Paper published in 2004.

· Sleeping for <=5 hours per night leads to 39% increase in heart disease. Sleeping for <=6 hours per night leads to 18% increase in heart disease. Paper published in 2006.

Ideal Sleep

For lack of space, I cannot explain here the ideal sleep architecture. But in brief, sleep is composed of two stages: REM ( Rapid Eye Movement ) and non-REM. The former helps in mental consolidation while the latter helps in physical repair and rebuilding. During the night, you alternate between REM and non-REM stages 4-5 times.

The earlier part of sleep is mostly non-REM. During that period, your pituitary gland releases growth hormones that repair your body. The latter part of sleep is more and more REM type.

For you to be mentally alert during the day, the latter part of sleep is more important. No wonder when you wake up with an alarm clock after 5-6 hours of sleep, you are mentally irritable throughout the day (lack of REM sleep). And if you have slept for less than 5 hours, your body is in a complete physical mess ( lack of non-REM sleep ), you are tired throughout the day, moving like a zombie and your immunity is way down ( I’ve been there, done that ).

Finally, as long-distance runners, you need an hour of extra sleep to repair the running related damage.

If you want to know if you are getting adequate sleep, take Epworth Sleepiness Test below.

Interpretation: Score of 0-9 is considered normal while 10 and above abnormal. Many a times, I have clocked 21 out the maximum possible 24, the only saving grace being the last situation, since I don’t like to drive ( maybe, I should ask my driver to answer that line ).

In conclusion:

Barring stress control, Ranjan Das did everything right: eating proper food, exercising ( marathoning! ), maintaining proper weight. But he missed getting proper and adequate sleep, minimum 7 hours. In my opinion, that killed him.
If you are not getting enough sleep ( 7 hours ), you are playing with fire, even if you have low stress.

I always took pride in my ability to work 50 hours at a stretch whenever the situation warranted. But I was so spooked after seeing the scientific evidence last week that since Saturday night, I ensure I do not even set the alarm clock under 7 hours. Now, that is a nice excuse to get some more sleep.

Unfortunately, Ranjan Das is not alone when it comes to missing sleep. Many of us are doing exactly the same, perhaps out of ignorance. Please forward this mail/article to as many of your colleagues/friends as possible, especially those who might be short-changing their sleep. If we can save even one young life because of this email, I would be the happiest person on earth.

Scholarship Opportunities

MARA Scholarship Programs
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PTPTN Education Loan

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Astro Scholarship Award
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PETRONAS Education Scholarship Programs
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2007 MNRB Scholarship Fund

OCBC Bank Scholarship
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Bank Negara Scholarship

ABM 50th Merdeka Scholarship

Curtin Sarawak Scholarship
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The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus High Achievers Scholarships
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Adelaide Achiever Scholarships International (AASI)
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King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST Discovery Scholarship)
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Universiti Malaysia Sabah Scholarship

The British High Commissioner's Scholarship 4 British School KL

In recognition of the British High Commissioner' s support for The British School in Kuala Lumpur, as of September 2009, The British Schools Group has established The British High Commissioner' s Scholarship.

The scholarship programme accepts a new scholar every year and will cover the costs of their schooling through to the end of secondary school. Scholars are selected by the High Commissioner.

The scholarship is fully funded by The British Schools Group. Full scholarships include all fees, materials, uniforms and lunches. Each scholarship is worth more than RM600,000.

Applications for the next round will be accepted between February 1st, 2010 and March 30th, 2010.

This scholarship is open to:
- Malaysian nationals,
- who are between 9 years of age between September 1st, 2008 and September 1st, 2009
- from families with limited incomes, and
- proficiency in English.

To apply:
Send an application to the address below marked "The British High Commissioner' s Scholarship" , attention to the Scholarship Committee.

The British School
The Club, No.1 Club Drive
Bukit Utama, Bandar Utama
Petaling Jaya,47800
Selangor, Malaysia

In the application include:
- A hand written letter telling us why you would like and deserve the scholarship.
- Your most recent school records.
- The names and phone numbers of head teacher and a personal referee.
- Evidence of family income including contact information for employers.

The Exam:
Following receipt of applications, selected applicants will be invited to school for an examination.

The Interview:
Following the exam, a select few short listed candidates will be interviewed by the British High Commissioner and the Headmaster of the British School.
® Copyright 2009. British School of K

7 Ciri- Pemimpin Yang Baik

* Seorang pemimpin yang baik tidak semestinya merendah diri tapi sekurang-kurangnya tidak bercakap besar.

* Beliau mesti bersedia menerima tanggungjawab tetapi tidak boleh terlalu mendesak dan berkeras dalam memimpin.

* Beliau tidak harus menyalahkan orang lain bagi kegagalan tetapi mengakui kelemahan diri serta tidak harus menuding jari atau mencari seseorang untuk dipersalahkan.

* Beliau harus bersikap luhur dan tidak pentingkan pujian dan kemasyhuran.

* Beliau patut tahu bagaimana mengendalikan pengikutnya begitu juga pihak atasan serta perlu sensitif dengan sensitiviti orang lain.

* Beliau patut bersedia melakukan apa yang diharapkan oleh orang lain untuk beliau laksanakan serta mendukung slogan kepemimpinan melalui teladan.

* Beliau perlu bijak dan lebih pintar sekurang-kurangnya berbanding orang yang berada di bawah pimpinannya.

Seven Personal Characteristics Of A Good Leader

How often have you heard the comment, "He or she is a born leader?" There are certain characteristics found in some people that seem to naturally put them in a position where they're looked up to as a leader.

Whether in fact a person is born a leader or develops skills and abilities to become a leader is open for debate. There are some clear characteristics that are found in good leaders. These qualities can be developed or may be naturally part of their personality. Let us explore them further.


1. A good leader has an exemplary character. It is of utmost importance that a leader is trustworthy to lead others. A leader needs to be trusted and be known to live their life with honestly and integrity. A good leader “walks the talk” and in doing so earns the right to have responsibility for others. True authority is born from respect for the good character and trustworthiness of the person who leads.

2. A good leader is enthusiastic about their work or cause and also about their role as leader. People will respond more openly to a person of passion and dedication. Leaders need to be able to be a source of inspiration, and be a motivator towards the required action or cause. Although the responsibilities and roles of a leader may be different, the leader needs to be seen to be part of the team working towards the goal. This kind of leader will not be afraid to roll up their sleeves and get dirty.

3. A good leader is confident. In order to lead and set direction a leader needs to appear confident as a person and in the leadership role. Such a person inspires confidence in others and draws out the trust and best efforts of the team to complete the task well. A leader who conveys confidence towards the proposed objective inspires the best effort from team members.

4. A leader also needs to function in an orderly and purposeful manner in situations of uncertainty. People look to the leader during times of uncertainty and unfamiliarity and find reassurance and security when the leader portrays confidence and a positive demeanor.

5. Good leaders are tolerant of ambiguity and remain calm, composed and steadfast to the main purpose. Storms, emotions, and crises come and go and a good leader takes these as part of the journey and keeps a cool head.

6. A good leader, as well as keeping the main goal in focus, is able to think analytically. Not only does a good leader view a situation as a whole, but is able to break it down into sub parts for closer inspection. While keeping the goal in view, a good leader can break it down into manageable steps and make progress towards it.

7. A good leader is committed to excellence. Second best does not lead to success. The good leader not only maintains high standards, but also is proactive in raising the bar in order to achieve excellence in all areas.

These seven personal characteristics are foundational to good leadership. Some characteristics may be more naturally present in the personality of a leader. However, each of these characteristics can also be developed and strengthened. A good leader whether they naturally possess these qualities or not, will be diligent to consistently develop and strengthen them in their leadership role.

Sunday, January 3, 2010


Dear friends, greetings to everyone of you. Thank you for coming to my web-site. I intend to write from time to time to share my thoughts with you. I propose to write on issues which I consider are important to humanity. I would like to begin my writing with some of my thoughts on the Creator.

Moral Life in the Veda embraces human being’s duties to God and his fellow beings. The Vedas assume a very close and intimate relationship between human beings and god. Human beings have to live under the very eye of God. Apart from the duties owed to God, there are also duties to fellow humans. Kindness to all is enjoined; hospitality is reckoned a great virtue: “The riches of one who gives do not diminish… He who possessed of good hardens his heart against feeble man craving nourishment, against the sufferer coming to him (for help) and pursues (his own enjoyment even) before him, that man finds no consoler”. Virtue is conformity to the law of God, which includes the love of the human being. Vice is disobedience to this law.

..Thirukkural, authored by Thiruvalluvar in the Tamil Language, dates back to 2037 years ago. It is the work of a master-crafsman with no concern for anything but the human and the divine as co-existent and inseparable. The Thirukkural becomes an entire body of unwritten law coming under aram. Aram embraces a universal and permanent code of reference for human conduct as distinct from the more modern concept of legal sanction arising from written laws. The sanction contained in aram is inner and divine. Aram runs through Thirukkural as thread would through a chain of precious beads.

Thank you.